Andrew Carnegie was born in 1835 into modest circumstances in Scotland. He moved to the United States for better economic opportunities, beginning in Pittsburgh, PA with several positions with the rail road. He eventually left these positions and in the early 1870s co-founded his first steel company. In 1892 his primary holdings were consolidated to form Carnegie Steel Company. Carnegie sold his steel company in 1902, retired from business, and devoted himself to philanthropy. He eventually gave away some $350 million (billions in today's money), funding the establishment of public libraries and organs for churches, and endowed organizations dedicated to research in science, education, world peace, and other causes, before dying in 1919.